Iceboat Postcard Photographer Identified

EPSON MFP image
Ice Boats crossing from P.E.I. to the Mainland. Publisher not identified. ca. 1907  Image courtesy Phil Culhane. peipostcards.com   

Early postcards used a variety of available images and the photographers are very rarely identified.  While some card series do specify the photographer it was not common practice. Moreover even if a photographer is occasionally identified the same image may be reused by the same or another publisher with no credit given.  In the postcard mania period before 1910 publishers grabbed images where ever they could find them and any photographs available to the public seemed to be fair game without credit or remuneration being given.

early divided backIt is always gratifying to put names to images. Such is the case with regard to the undated card shown above. This early divided-back card shows a dramatic scene with crews struggling to bring iceboats across a field of jammed ice or thick “lolly.” Unusually the boats are show with their small lug sails in use.  These were only deployed when wind speed and direction were favourable.  The photo is not particularly crisp and the quality of the reproduction poor but it is one of the earliest postcards to show the scene which was unique to the winter service on Prince Edward Island.

Screen Shot 04-14-22 at 07.32 PMIn researching the history of the iceboat service I stumbled across the same image, hiding in plain sight, with the identity of the photographer credited. In April 1903 the Prince Edward Island Magazine published  an illustrated article titled “Our Winter Navigation.” (available here) The illustrations consisted of images of the winter steamer captains and several shots of the iceboats and crews in action. Unlike some iceboat photos of the period these are not posed groups but action shots of the crews at work. These photos were most likely taken during the winter of 1902-1903.

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Frontispiece. Prince Edward Island Magazine April 1903

Here as the frontispiece for the issue is the postcard photo but with the photographer identified – W. Erdley Hyndman.  Walter Erdley Hyndman (1875-1936),  was connected with a family with shipping and marine insurance interests although he does not appear to have been a member of the firm that continues today has Hyndman & Company. Instead he trained as a civil engineer and for more than thirty years worked as a district engineer with the provincial Department of Public Works.

This was not the only W. Erdley Hyndman image in the article to be published as a postcard.

Island mag 5-2 Ap 1902 pC

This image used in the article appears as the subject of a 1907 card issued by Charlottetown Booksellers and Printers, Haszard and Moore, although it was not printed by the firm as evidenced by “Printed in Belgium” in the stamp box.

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Ice Boat service from P.E.I. to Mainland. Haszard & Moore postcard. Author’s collection.

The article included one other Hyndman photograph – shown below – which does not seem to have been used for postcard purposes – or at least no copy of such a post card has yet been found.

Island Mag 5-2 Ap 1903 pB As well, there seem to be other images which may well have been taken by Hyndman the same day which were not included in the Prince Edward Island Magazine article. This is the case with “An Easy Stretch.” Other iceboat cards also appear to have used images which were taken by Hyndman although no credit is given. The card below, “Crossing to Prince Edward Island in Winter,” was sold by Taylor’s Bookstore and given the style, title type-face and subject certainly seems to be part of the same series although the card is monotone image.

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Coming to Prince Edward Island in Winter. Taylor’s Bookstore postcard. Robertson Library UPEI.

This card too was printed in Belgium and the card back is identical in design save for the name of the firm selling the card which has been changed.

These appear to be the only iceboat postcards for which the photographer is definitely known with the exception of a later series of real photo postcards. Iceboat postcards constitute a thematic subject unique to Prince Edward Island and Northumberland Strait.  They will be the subject of a future posting.

Victoria Park in Early Postcards

Visiting naval vessel seen from Victoria Park. Bathing huts can be seen just to the right of the seated figure. R.F. Maddigan postcard.

Charlottetown’s Victoria Park was established in 1875. It was carved from a property on the western side of the city designated as the Governor’s Farm.  When Charlottetown was laid out it had five squares: Queens, Kings, Pownal, Hillsborough and Rochford. By the mid 1800s these were becoming inadequate to the city’s needs. Queens Square was occupied by the market and other public buildings, Pownal Square housed the city jail. A chance to set aside public space on the waterfront was lost when the Imperial government gave up the ordnance grounds at the west end of Water Street. The colonial authorities decided to auction the lots off instead of establishing a park. The possibility of turning over part of the Governor’s Farm for a park was raised in 1869 and was discussed during the negotiations leading to the Island’s entry into Confederation.

Finally in 1875 40 acres constituting the westernmost part of the farm  were handed over to the city. The grant excluded the Prince Edward Battery which was retained for military uses. By 1880 the field nearest the harbour was identified as a cricket ground and one near Brighton Road (now Memorial Field) became a parade ground for the several military units in the city.  Access to the park was from Brighton Road because the proposed roadway extending Kent Street in front of Government House was opposed by various Lieutenant Governors until 1896. The roadway to the Battery was completed a year later and was extended to join Brighton Road in 1899. In 1905 additional land was carved out of the Government House Farm and the Park reached the size it has today.

As the premier recreational space the Park was the subject of many postcards highlighting the natural setting and the activities which took place there. First and foremost it provided a vantage point of the harbour with the open channel to Hillsborough Bay.

Charlottetown Harbour from Victoria Park. This view appears to pre-date the completion of the park roadway. R.F. Maddigan postcard

An extremely popular postcard subject was the view from the Prince Edward Battery (usually misidentified as Fort Edward) back toward the city. A single image was used by a number of publishers and others appeared which were only slight variations of the view.

In the early 1900s the military installation was still very much in use. The main army drill hall and other structures were on the east side of Governor’s Pond. The Battery was used by the artillery for both training and ceremonial uses. The 4th Artillery Regiment was particularly successful in Dominion competition and frequently led the country in the national results.

The new Park Roadway in front of Government House opened the Park to easy access from Kent Street. This image or a slight variation of appear on cards from a half-dozen or more publishers. This is a Haszard and Moore postcard.
Fort Edward, Victoria Park MHF
The Prince Edward Battery site continues to be used for ceremonial salutes to this day. Taylor’s Book Store postcard.

The annual Militia camps took place in the park until the Great War and provided an entertainment for visitors and residents of Charlottetown. Militia groups came from across the Island to set up camp in the Park and engaged in drills and competition while under canvas. The patriotism of the Boer War period made membership in the militia a popular form of comradeship and interest in civilian soldiers continued through to the Great War.

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Visitors at Camp Brighton. Carter & Company postcard.
Heavy Battery No. 3 Camp Brighton MHF
The horse artillery drawn up on the Park Roadway. The white board fence bordering the Government House grounds can be seen to the east of the encampment. Pugh postcard #42-7.

But military camps were not the only users of the park. Although there were limitations on the use of the park for shows and commercial activities which had a paid admission charge, community groups were frequent users.

YMCA Camp Victoria Park MHF
YMCA Camp, Victoria Park. There were close relationships between the military and groups such as the YMCA. The latter organization frequently had a support presence in military camps. Taylor’s Book Store postcard.

The vast majority of the early postcards images of Victoria Park deal with the natural views in the park.  A number of carriage lanes, some still in use as pathways today, had been opened in the predominantly birch forest and the striking groves of white birches served as both subject and background for Charlottetown photographers. W.S. Louson, whose photos were used by the Toronto postcard firm Warwick Bros. & Rutter was particularly enamoured by the park as a photo venue. [click an image to enlarge or begin slide show]

Today Victoria Park continues to be the site of postcard views and increased use of the park had led to more and more structures; fieldhouses, a bandshell, and changing rooms. During the Edwardian era the only buildings were the battery magazine, the tennis pavilion and the keepers house. Now it becoming overbuilt and is harder and harder to pretend, as our ancestors did in the beginning of the 20th century,  that the park represents a bit of the country in the city.

 

 

Five Views of Edwardian Queen Street

The building of the Charles B. Chappell designed Stamper Building at the south-east corner of Queen and Richmond Streets in Charlottetown created vantage point overlooking the prosperous businesses which looked east onto Queen Square. A series of postcard images showing the street scene reveal changes on the street over a period of ten or so years. They also tell us a lot about what postcards do and do not show and how sometimes all that exists is not to be seen.

All of the images are from the roof of the Stamper Building looking north up Queen Street toward the 1888 City Hall with its impressive bell tower. However, in the previous statement “all” should really read “both” as close examination of the cards, although they are from five different publishers, shows they actually share only two photographic images.  What is the earliest of the series is a card printed in Belgium for Taylor’s Book Store in Charlottetown.

Looking at details we can date this card as being from an image before 1909. That year the Fancy Grocery store of Jenkins and Sons on the north-west corner of Queen and Grafton Streets was demolished and was replaced by the columned façade of the Bank of Commerce, which had recently bought out the Merchants Bank of Prince Edward Island. Prominent in the foreground of the picture is a telephone or electrical pole with dozens of insulators. The wires, for the most part, have been re-touched out of existence.  The buildings fronting the square are almost all three-story brick structures. There is one exception – next to Weeks “People’s Store” a 19th century wooden building still remains. On the right of the card the shadow cast by the W.C. Harris designed Market Building falls on market square.

The same image is the basis of the card from  Charlottetown stationers Carter & Company.  But this card has little of the quality evident in the first.

Re-touched almost to the point of becoming merely a sketch of the scene, its photograph origins are obscured to the extreme.  The subtle details of the storefronts and signage are blurred. The utility pole has disappeared as has the shadow of the market building, replaced by the retoucher by a green sward surrounded by a neat hedge. Although the figures on the street, including a horse-drawn “sloven” in the middle of Queen Street, have been allowed to remain, they have almost become stick figures. In a clumsy but easily missed detail the sign of Haszard’s Bookstore on the building to the right to the sole wooden structure has been changed from the original in the photograph to read “Carter & Co. Ltd.” The overall result is a card showing a poorly coloured sterile streetscape devoid of shadows and details.  North of Grafton Street the lack of detail is even more noticible.

A card from Toronto’s Pugh Manufacturing Company looks at first glance to be merely a copy but it is a different and later image although also taken from the top of the Stamper building.  The chief difference is the 1909 Bank of Commerce which has replaced the wooden building on the corner of Queen and Grafton Streets.

But that is not the only change. S.A. MacDonald’s store with its distinctive arched second-story show window has taken the place of the wooden store.  Streetlight standards line the western side of the street.  In this photo even some of the wiring of utility poles seems to have been left in although the large pole in the centre of the card has either been re-purposed or decapitated.

A fourth card, like many cards of the period has neither a publisher or printer identified and being unused does not even have a postmark to date it although it clearly is the same image as the one used in the Pugh card shown above.

It is more closely cropped on all sides. The offending utility pole has been re-touched out of existence but a festive line of seven flags has been added in a patriotic flourish.

The final card is from Raphael Tuck and Sons, an English firm that had been appointed official printers to Queen Victoria. The firm’s cards were printed in Germany and the output included both photographic images and a wide variety of artistic cards.

The publishing quality of the Tuck cards is extremely high with subtle colouration.  Yet this card too has been altered from the original. In this case it is not the addition of flags that is most evident but the complete removal of every utility pole in the photograph giving the appearance of a broad street unspoiled by poles, wires, or other defacing 20th century street furniture.

After the Great War Queen Street continued to be a popular scene for postcards, several of which were from the Stamper’s Corner vantage point. While there was little change in the buildings lining the streets the horses, carts and slovens were soon replaced with automobiles and trucks.

These cards are a reminder that much of what we see has been “improved” in the printing process and that postcards, like all documentation, should be viewed with a critical eye.

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